What is Doping?
The use of drugs is an attempt to enhance sporting performance and is often referred to as doping. The word
'dope' originated from a primitive South African alcoholic drink that was used as a stimulant in ceremonial
dances. In today's sporting context, doping refers to the use of performance enhancing chemicals of banned
substances or methods that may enhance performance by an athlete.
The drive to compete and win is as old as humankind. Athletes throughout history have sought foods and potions
to increase their performance. Greek wrestlers ate huge quantities of meat to build muscle. The Norse warriors of
the Berserkers ate hallucinogenic mushrooms to gear up for battle. Greek gladiators took dope to help make their
fights sufficiently vigorous and bloody. Chariot racers would feed their horses a mixture of dope to make them
run faster. For as long as competitive sports have existed athletes have tried to get any edge the competition.
They desire to be more successfull at any cost.
The first recorded death from the use of doping in sport was in 1886 when a cyclist died from an overdose of
trimethyl. In 1904 Olympics marathon runner Thomas Hicks was using a mixture of brandy and strychnine and nearly
died. Heroin, cocaine, and caffeine were used widely used until heroin and cocaine became available only on
prescription. During the 1930's it was Amphetamines that replaced strychnine. In the 1950s the Soviet Olympic
team used male hormones to increase strength and power. The American's developed steroids as a response.
In the 1952 Winter Olympics several speed skaters became ill and needed medical attention after taking
amphetamines. Danish cyclist, Kurt Jensen during the 1960 Olympics collapsed and died from an amphetamine
overdose. During the 1970's anabolic steroids became the form of doping. By the 1980's, as non-athletes also
discovered the body enhancing properties of steroids.
1988 Summer Olympics Ben Johnson shattered the world record in the 100-meter dash. His medal was stripped the day
after when he tested for anabolic steroids in a post-race drug screening. He is still fighting for his right to
The 1998 Tour de France in was hit by the worst drugs scandal in its history. The Top Flight Festina team was
thrown out of the Tour after the team masseur Willy Voet was was arrested when performance-enhancing drugs where
found in his team car. In the end, one third of all teams in the race either withdrew or were expelled because of
illegal drug abuse.
Steroids are drugs that have been derived from hormones. Anabolic steroids comprise only one group of these
hormonal drugs. It has been proven that Anabolic Steroids do not improve agility, skill or cardiovascular
capacity. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of many steroids for treating specific
disorders. Anabolic Steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, a natural male hormone. The hormone's
anabolic effects help the body retain dietary protein, thus aiding growth of muscles, bones, and skin. The
androgenic characteristics of testosterone are associated with masculinity. They foster the maturing of the male
reproductive system in puberty, the growth of body hair and the deepening of the voice.
Those who choose to take steroids put themselves at risk to more than 70 side effects ranging in from liver
cancer to acne. They can have both psychological and physical reactions to the steroids. The liver,
cardiovascular and reproductive systems are most at risk for steroid use.
Steroids used by males can cause withered testicles, sterility, and impotence. Females risk acquiring
irreversible masculine traits, breast reduction, and sterility. The psychological effects in both sexes include
aggressive, combative behavior and depression. Some of side effects will not show up for years, such as heart
attacks and strokes. Used during adolescence steroids could cause arrested bone development.